THE WORLD PRACTICE
Nothing herein can be taken as basis for development of rules and regulations for any entity!
Appropriate regulations, documentation, statutes, laws of the Republic of Azerbaijan should be referred to!
Principle of fire breaking-out
Fire consists of combination of three elements and results from reaction between them. The so called fire triangle or combustion triangle includes fuel (for example, wood, petrol, propane, aluminum, etc.), oxygen and heat (for example, faulty electrical equipment).
Two main factors are essential for fire safety:
• Prevention of fire – This factor should be prioritised at any entity and activities should be set up and performed so that fire does not occur. For this purpose, combustible substances and materials should be kept in specially designated areas, sources of ignition should be controlled, maintenance work should be done timely and properly to eliminate the sources of ignition, work area should be clean and neat, and all staff should be trained in fire safety, etc.
• Fire Fighting - It involves the appropriate steps taken after the fire occurs. It only makes sense that ahead of any entity doesn’t want a fire to occur in his workplace. However, even if there is a fire for any reason actions should be taken in time for the fire to be controlled and eliminated. For example: installation at the work site of fire water and fire foam systems where appropriate, fire stations, necessary equipment on it, fire extinguishers, fire blankets, detectors for various purposes in the rooms, fire alarm system, etc. Training of staff is one of the key issues.
Classification of fire:
A-solid material fires (paper, cardboard, wood, rubber, plastics, etc.)
B-flammable liquid fires(oil, petrol, kerosene,methanol, etc.)
C – combustible gas fires (propane, butane, methane, acetylene, etc.)
D-combustible metal fires(maqnesium, aluminum, etc.)
F-fires that involve cooking oils, grease or animal fat
NOTE: Please note that electricity in international standards is not a separate "E"category. Because electricity is not fuel, which can be a very good source of ignition.
Classification of fire extinguishers
Water – Used on fires involving solid materials. They should not be used on electrical and liquid fires
Foam – Used on solid and liquid fires. They should not be used on electrical fires.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) – Are designed for use on electrical fires. They could also be used on liquid fires.
Dry Chemical Powder – All-purpose extinguisher. Therefore, this means that they are effective at combatting all fire classes except for cooking oil fire.
Wet chemical – Used for cooking oil fires.
Flammable, combustible means easily put on fire by a source of heat at normal environment temperature. Every substance has its own ignition temperature. Substance or material can burn only when exposed to a source of heat within that temperature.
Sometimes alongside with flammable a phrase high flammability is also can be encountered. It expresses that this substance or material can burn at a lower temperature.
The ways of flame propagation
• Immediate imflamation
General causes of fire in the workplace
• Electrical eqiopment – faulty wiring, overloading, misuse, application in the wrong environment, etc.
• Intentional act
• Hot works – works involving free flame or spark
• Smoking – smoking in the non-designated places can cause fire
• Leaving kitchen cookware uncontrolled
• Leaving used room heaters uncontrolled
• Improper storage and dangerous use of flammable substances, materials and gases
• Mechanical heat – smoke, spark produced by permanently moving or rubbing elements in the equipment
• Chemical reactions
Therea re 3 main reasons for risk assesments associated with fire safety in the workplace:
1. To avoid personal injuries – An employer has a moral obligation to the employee for his/her health protection and safety.
2. To comply with law – An employer has safety obligation under the law, subject to various penalties, even arrest in case of failure to perform this obligation
3. To minimize expenses – fire occured in the workplace can put to fire any equipment, even the whole entity and thus cause the employee heavy loss, even bankruptcy
While assessing fire safety related risks the followong factors should be considered:
• Ti identify safe safety
- Source of fire
- Source of ignition
- Source of oxygen
• To identify persons that may be in risk
- People in the building
- To prioritize disabled, pregnant, young, inexperienced and this type of employees
• To assess risk, identify and perform controls required
- Fire prevention
- Prevention of spreading smoke and flame
- Detector and signals
- Fire-fighting equipment
- Escape routes
- Signs and caution boards
• To make notes of the results, plan and provide instructions
- Emergency responce plan
- Providing information and instructions
Typical safety rules during hot works
• Flammables and combustible materials should be removed from the area
• Those substances and materials that cannot be removed should be covered with non-inflammable cover
• The floor should be cleaned
• Let water go through drain lines, territory should be washed with water (if needed)
• Wood floor should be covered
• Appropriate fire extinguisher should be placed
• Fire controller should be appointed
• Area should be cleaned after the work
• The place where hot works have been performed should be reinspected to ensure that there is no any flame or smoke
The following factors should be reflected in the entity’s fire plan
• People inside the building (employees, visitors, contractors, whose who need spacial care)
• Steps to be taken when a fore is observed (How an alarm should be sounded, how the fire-fighting team should be contacted)
• Escape routes (number, distance to the safe place, fire exit signs, emergency lighting in the corridors and staircases)
• Fire-fighting equipment (type and place)
• Steps to be taken after the people have escaped (meeting at the muster point, proper counting work, examination of the site of the event by rescue team)
• Training (on the use of equipment, training session on fire alarms, coordination with other groups in the worksite)